Before Marvel's Spider-Man
In the initial stage of his assault against Norman Osborn, Otto Octavius launched a coordinated attack on Ryker's: within minutes, every cell block was breached, leading to a massive riot. Spider-Man went to Ryker's with Yuri Watanabe in an attempt to stem the riot, which by that point had escalated due to inmates breaching the armory. While Spider-Man was able to stem the riot to a point, he was forced to abandon the prison when Octavius's assault on the nearby Raft initiated.
Despite the efforts of Spider-Man and the police, many of the island's inmates escaped the island, with many becoming quarantined in Manhattan as a result of the Devil's Breath crisis. These prisoners, along with escapees from the Raft, destabilized an already reeling New York further, committing violent crimes and setting up Prisoner Camps in residential neighborhoods. Spider-Man is ultimately able to detain many of the inmates, leading to many being returned to Ryker's.
Ryker's Island first appeared in Amazing Spider-Man #4 (September 1963).